New therapeutic options for respiratory tract infections.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
The progressive increase of respiratory tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) has been associated with delays in the prescription of an adequate antibiotic treatment and increased mortality, representing a major concern in both community and hospital settings. When infections because of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are suspected, vancomycin still represents the first choice, although its efficacy has been recently questioned in favor of new drugs, reported to provide better clinical outcomes. Moreover, few therapeutic options are currently available for the treatment of severe infections caused by Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens, which are frequently resistant to all the available β-lactams, including carbapenems. We have reviewed the therapeutic options for the treatment of respiratory tract infections that have recently become available with promising implications for clinical practice, including ceftaroline, ceftrobiprole, tedizolid, telavancin, delafloxacin, eravacycline, and new β-lactams/β-lactamase inhibitors.
RECENT FINDINGS:
A number of new antimicrobials with activity against MDROs have been recently approved for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, and other agents are under investigation. Recent developments, with a specific focus on the possible advantages of new drugs for the management of respiratory tract infections caused by MDROs in everyday clinical practice are discussed.
SUMMARY:
Newly approved and investigational drugs for the treatment of respiratory tract infections are expected to offer many advantages for the management of patients with suspected or confirmed infections caused by MDROs. Most promising features among new compounds include the broad spectrum of activity against both MRSA and MDR Gram-negative bacteria, a limited risk of antimicrobial resistance, the availability of oral formulations, and a promising safety profile.
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